Ceramic tiles should be used strictly in accordance with the requirements for its use. Floor tiles are not used in wall cladding, and wall materials are too brittle to cover the floor. For the bathroom and the room with a high level of humidity, moisture-resistant ceramic tiles are used. Regardless of the amount of work done and the number of square metres, we start the cladding by measuring the surface, whether it is a niche, wall, floor or path in the garden. The quality of the tiling depends on smooth walls and floors, as well as cornices, slopes and corners. You can use chalk line, slicing, or marking. We use a tool like a laser level when it comes to large rooms, allowing high accuracy in spacious rooms. Roulettes, building water levels, inventory beacons are also used at this stage of the work.
When applying stamps and beacons, we start marking from the corners. We draw strict vertical lines on the wall, from which we will build upon completion of work. We draw lines on two walls, located near one corner. Using the rule, we determine if there are irregularities in the plane of the wall. If the wall area is large enough, you can use ropes that are stretched crosswise. We retreat 15-20 cm from the corners and fix them in the walls with a dowel punch. We fasten the ropes to these dowels necessary for stretching. It is good if the wire does not touch the wall in several places. But if the rope moves due to burrs and bumps, you must move the screws. It is enough to turn the screws a few turns, check the wires again, and continue until the wire stops touching the wall.
In this case, it is worth paying attention to such elements:
The beacons should be even and strong. By pressing a little on the beacons, we will apply a layer of plaster after the solution has been thrown onto the surface. Try not to destroy the beacons during this procedure. With the help of nails and a drill, temporary beacons are installed in the outer corners. In this case, a base or flat plank can act as a beacon. There are usually permanent beacons in the middle of the wall near the inner corners. When installing plaster beacons, remember that they should be placed at a distance of 30-40 cm from the corners.
When working with drywall, you should also install beacons. Drywall is attached to these beacons, so that they also become load-bearing elements. When installing metal beacons, you can install flat or angular beacons, which are traditionally installed before applying the putty. Metal beacons vary in numbers. For the manufacture of gypsum beacons, we use a dry building mixture with cement as the main binder. You can use a sand-cement mixture that has a higher proportion of cement than conventional mortar.
The floor and ceiling, as well as the rest of the horizontal surfaces, were leveled using a water level. But this provision applies only to those cases where the work is carried out in small areas. We mark the space horizontally along the perimeter of the room. To simplify the task of leveling the floor horizontally, mark a point in one of the corners at eye level. This will avoid unnecessary slopes and will contribute to more convenient marking. Next, you need to fill the level with water. To do this, we immerse the container in water, while not immersing the second flask with its lid in water. In order to dislodge the air, you can pull it out with your mouth. After the air bubbles come out of the tube, adjust the position of the water in the containers, and remove the excess water. Compare the vials,
It is impossible to determine a horizontal plane without an additional assistant. While one person holds one flask in the corner with the markers, the other must mark the same point in the other corner. Try marking more often, this will give a more accurate result. We connect the points along the perimeter using a flat rail or rule. If there are differences in the joints of the lines, it means that you are wrong somewhere. Manipulation must be resumed by checking each point.
During cladding, craftsmen often face the need to mark room centers and vertical lines. These markings are usually used when you need to plan a specific tile pattern. In the corners of the room we install the screws with which we attach the tourniquet. When choosing a belt, we pay attention to the quality of the materials; The belt should not stretch or change shape under the influence of the load. At the end of the tourniquet we attach a pencil with which we draw arcs, as if you were using a compass. After we connect the pencil, we draw arcs again. We repeat the manipulations in the second corner and so on. Draw a center line through the points, perpendicular to the lines. Using a square, we check for the right angles that appear with such notation.
Ceramic tiles: a few secrets
Before laying tiles on the floor or on a wall, find a flat surface and lay the tiles dry to check the shades and colors of the tiles. You can look at this design from the side, under different lighting conditions. This will give you an idea of how the ceramic tile will look on the wall or floor after it is tiled. You can make a slice of wood that becomes the control line. The tape can be marked with markers, which are subsequently transferred to the surface of the wall or floor. This trick is useful for tracking the movement of tiles while tiling.
When drying, you can find out what size crosses are better for the selected color and type of surface .If you count the number of tiles on the floor or wall, you can see if a narrow strip will remain against the wall. In order not to cut a narrow strip, you can increase the width of the tile joints. This not only saves material, but also avoids cutting. After all, solid ceramic tile looks more aesthetically pleasing when facing than with cut parts.
We use a serrated comb to apply glue when facing. The height of the tool teeth can be different. If we are working with liquid adhesive, a comb with 3 mm teeth can be used. 12mm comb is suitable for rough surfaces. We apply the composition at one angle to the wall, moving in one direction.
Before tiling, it is necessary to check the previously plastered surface. To do this, you can gently pierce it; By clicking on it with the ear, you can select those places that can subsequently cause the tiles to fall off. Old, brittle paint must be removed so that this is not done after encountering it during surface operation. Cracks can be made, but there should be about two hundred degrees per square meter. Using a spatula, remove the remnants of old putty or paint.
Tiles are traditionally laid on a clean, dry surface. In order to achieve perfect surface cleanliness from grease, dust and dirt, it is necessary to treat the area with a primer. You can use a special primer, which includes not only an adhesive component, but also particles of quartz sand. It is they who, after drying, provide a strong contact with surfaces.