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Paints: Types of paints and their properties

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Types of paints

Types of paints

Types of paints Today, many people make repairs themselves, and every year there are more opportunities for this. How to make sure that the paint does not fade, crack or swell in the future? What should you know before painting and how to choose paint? Let’s deal with these questions.

So, choose paint. what do you want to know? First, always make surface preparation before painting a base. We take a rag and wash off everything that we have accumulated: grease, dirt and soot. Oh, are you so clean? and dust? We also remove it. Then we remove the old paint, especially if it is swollen and cracked. This can be done mechanically or with a special liquid to remove the old coating.We putty bumps. The wall of which often turns black, it is time to treat it with an antiseptic. There are many ways to protect the surface and make it durable. Now let’s get to the primer. It will allow the coating to adhere better and play a protective role. The primer is applied to the new surface and the old paint (if the layer is thin and even). And only after complete drying can you start painting. If the surface is not flat, has cracks, bumps and pits, then you need to use a putty, and after that apply a primer.

Besides wallpapering, painting is popular for interior decoration. Painting the walls in the apartment allows you to easily and quickly transform the room, as well as inexpensively. The modern construction market offers a lot of wall paints – each of them has its own characteristics and properties. Let’s see what you prefer for repairs in the apartment. Choosing wall paint is a difficult task, but if you approach the problem correctly, you can get the best result.

The first group Types of paints: watercolor paints

Emulsion paints

Emulsion paints are diluted with water (do not dissolve), their bonding base and coloring particles are distributed in an aqueous medium, forming a stable emulsion. After drying, it is not washed off with water. But it is easy to wash hands and tools from them (until the material dries). Emulsion paints are economical, characterized by environmental friendliness, fire safety. It sticks well to almost any surface. Metal coatings must be prepared to prevent corrosion. Emulsion paints should not be applied to surfaces previously painted with glossy or sticky paints. The same applies to painted surfaces. In turn, after emulsion paints, you can use any paints and enamels. Emulsion paints dry quickly and do not have a sharp unpleasant odor. It is alkali resistant.

Emulsion paints are divided into: water-based, acrylic, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), latex, aqueous dispersion and silicone. Many   people think that  water-based paints and water-  disperse paints  are  one and the same. All of them do not have the peculiarity of exfoliation, they are permeable to air and water vapor, that is, they “breathe”. Suitable for rooms with high humidity, it is not frost-resistant, but retains its color for a long time (read a detailed analysis of how to choose the color of the room ).  

But there are still differences. Matte water-based paints gradually wash off over time, and moisture-resistant paints that disperse water, which means that they are suitable for frequent washing. In addition, water-dispersion paints are mostly white, and water-based paints amaze with a variety of colors. Water-dispersion paints should not be applied at temperatures below +5 ° C.

Acrylic resins act as a bonding  agent for acrylic paints. These paints are highly elastic (adapt to the properties of wood) and have great durability. High-quality acrylic paints are able to cover capillary cracks up to 0.5 mm. Too bad it is expensive. Cheaper counterparts are made on the basis of acrylic polymers. Acrylic paints are frost-resistant, but only after complete drying. They have low gas permeability, and therefore can protect well from corrosion, for example, reinforced concrete. Suitable for alkaline bases, but it can be applied to fresh plaster no earlier than in a month. The reason is the low gas permeability: carbon dioxide is involved in the process of hardening the plaster, and this process is very long.

acrylic paints

Acrylic paints are not entirely suitable for premises with wet walls. These types of paints are perfectly pigmented and resistant to ultraviolet rays, excellent color retention. It also combines water and steam resistance. They have the highest mechanical resistance.

latex paints

Latex paints are the most expensive emulsion paints. They are made with the addition of latex. This gives a strong waterproof effect, which means that you can wash the surface as often as you like. They are able to tighten capillary cracks up to 1 mm. Latex paints are used on different surfaces: textured wallpaper, walls (concrete, plaster, brick, drywall), ceilings. It dries in 20-60 minutes. But its light fastness is less than that of acrylic emulsion and PVA paints.

Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) paints

Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) paints, unlike latex, are the most expensive. However, they also have a low water resistance, and with regular washing, the coating is gradually washed off with water. The paint is environmentally friendly, highly resistant to light, oils and fats, suitable for interior use, especially for ceiling coatings. By the way, read the article on how to choose a ceiling coating .

silicone paints

Here, emulsified silicone resin acts as a binding element. Silicone resins are sometimes added to acrylic paints. Silicone paints, when dried, form a water-repellent surface, but perfectly pass air and water vapor. It has high elasticity and is able to cover capillary cracks up to 2 mm. Silicone paints can be applied to fresh plaster after 48 hours (not after 30 days like acrylic paints). Silicone paints can be applied to all types of metal surfaces.

They are compatible with acrylic latex and metallic paints. It can even be applied to old silicate paint. Silicone coating is resistant to dirt and also prevents the development of microorganisms. Their only drawback is their high cost. Therefore, they are used mainly for decoration, especially if they want to emphasize the prestige of the building.

Types of paints

Types of paints

The second group Types of paints: organic solvent paints


Alkyd Paints

The binding element in alkyd paints is alkyd resin. Alkyd paints include enamel paints and oil paints. Suitable for painting plastered surfaces, as well as wooden and metal substrates (for example, metal radiators ). After drying, non-toxic, waterproof.

oil paints

Oil paints were popular in the past based on drying oil. Thinners are white spirit, turpentine, naphtha solvent or gasoline. It costs very little, but it dries for a very long time (up to several days). When dry, it releases harmful substances, so it is more suitable for outdoor work. Their significant drawback is that the painted surface turns yellow over the years.

enamel paints

Enamel paints are made on the basis of varnishes and it is precisely for this reason that they have a high gloss and look very beautiful. Enamel paints are used for painting metal, appliances, wooden surfaces, walls (glued and putty) etc. Can be used for both internal and external works. Nitroenamels dries very quickly – 15-45 minutes. Enamel paints are water, rust and light resistant.

The third group Types of paints: silicate paints


Silicate paints

Silicate paints are made on the basis of liquid glass, and they can be classified as mineral. This is one of the best ways to protect the interface. Characteristics of silicate paints: vapor and air permeability, increased resistance to temperature extremes and ultraviolet rays, friability, poor reaction to water. It should be borne in mind that silicate paints are not only stable, but also practically indelible. Silicate paints are diluted with water and contain alkali – take care of your skin and eyes. It should not be painted on surfaces previously coated with acrylic or alkyd paints, or applied to glass, ceramic, stone or metal surfaces. But it is suitable for alkaline surfaces, such as plasters. The primer should also be silicate.

Silicate paints cannot protect walls from atmospheric moisture. With heavy rain, water remains, although not for long, in the walls. However, with poor waterproofing of the foundation, it is very useful if the humidity in the walls is higher than atmospheric. The color range of silicate paints is limited due to the alkali in the composition.

The fourth group Types of paints: adhesives

adhesive paints

Made of water-based organic polymers. Environmentally friendly, as it does not contain toxic or harmful chemical compounds. Their properties are similar to emulsion paints, but adhesive paints are less resistant to moisture, so the scope of application is very limited – these materials are suitable only for painting dry rooms. Adhesive paints are produced in a dry form and are diluted with water immediately before use.

casein paints

Casein paints are based on protein components, and these paints are suitable for both external and internal works. It goes well with plaster, concrete and brick. Of all the glue paints, casein paints are considered the most stable and beautiful.

Dextrinide paints

Mascara paints on bone glue can only be used for interior work, as they have poor water resistance. Paints are easy to handle, environmentally friendly and well preserved in dry climates, and are available in a wide variety of colors. However, like all adhesives, it is destroyed by carbon dioxide and moisture. In poorly ventilated rooms and high humidity, the organic composition of the adhesive coating becomes a habitat for many microbes and molds. Surfaces deteriorate quickly.

Advantages and disadvantages of coloring

Among the advantages of decorating walls with paints, one can distinguish a variety of design options, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability of the coating. The pros and cons depend on the paint you choose. Using high-quality materials, as well as high quality and thorough preparation of the wall, the resulting coating will be reliable and will not lose its decorative properties. In addition, the painted surface is more practical – unlike wallpaper, regular washing will not damage the wall.

The walls of the room are much easier to paint. Some apartments have a rather complex configuration – there may be different niches, columns and ledges. In the case of wallpapering, you will have to work hard and even suffer. Paint and varnish compositions for such an apartment are the best option.

With the help of staining, you can hide a lot of small defects on the wall: remove scratches, stains, chips with minimal effort and materials.

But there are also drawbacks. To get a good result, it is not enough to use the most expensive paint for the walls in the apartment. The first step is to carefully prepare the surface. Paints and varnishes by themselves are not able to hide flaws and imperfections.

Drawing on the wall is not as easy as it seems. If there is no experience in such work, do not follow the technology and buy inexpensive, low-quality materials, the resulting paint may be far from expected. You also need to consider that matte paint, mostly among those on the market, accumulates dust on it.

Characteristics and main characteristics of paints

When choosing paint for residential premises, it is necessary to pay attention to the safety and environmental friendliness of the material. Some formulations may contain ingredients harmful to health. Adverse effects can be exerted not only during the coloring process, but also after complete drying during the entire period of operation. The activity of secretions can be affected by the local climate, temperature and humidity levels.

Different types of colorants differ in different resistance to different types of damage. The durability and service life of the coating depend on the level of wear resistance.


Painted wall care may vary depending on installation. Some materials do not tolerate moisture, so you will have to clean these walls by dry methods. There are also indelible paints – they can be cleaned with water, but the stains will either not be removed at all, or they will be very difficult.

There is also a third type of paint and varnish compositions – a washable paint. It is able to repel dirt, and the wall can also be washed with soap or alkaline solutions. Besides these compositions, there are products with a low operating load on sale – they are designed for dry rooms, they do not withstand the effects of steam, cigarette smoke and fats.

The important characteristic is the opacity. This is a property that allows you to bypass the treated wall color. High hiding power indicates that 2-3 layers of material will easily cover contrasting primary colors.


Resistance to light and sunlight is important. For lit rooms, it is better to choose a composition that can withstand exposure to direct sunlight and ultraviolet rays. If the composition has poor light fastness, then after a certain period of time the shade will lose its saturation and burn out. This must be taken into account before choosing a coating material.

The consumption of the composition depends on the strength of the mask. When buying, you should pay attention to expensive materials – they are, in the end, more economical than cheap types of paints. Expensive coloring mixture has a high hiding power and is often enough to apply one layer. But today different wall paints can be used in the apartment – how to choose the best option?

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